INCO willingly helped German aggression

The International Nickel Company of Canada, which controlled 85 per cent of world nickel production in the 1930s, delivered nickel to the Hitlerite state for political-military reasons

Excerpted from the book
Thus Wars Are Made!
(Ttitle of the original German edition: So werden Kriege gemacht!)

Verlag Zeit im Bild, 1970

CLASSICAL EVIDENCE of this co-operation for war purposes is contained in the files of the IG Farben trust. At the Nuremberg trial against the IG Farben directors, the court confirmed that the International Nickel Company of Canada (INCO), which controls 85 per cent of the nickel production in the capitalist world, delivered nickel to the Hitlerite state for political-military reasons. On 29 September 1947, in the course of the trial, a declaration of the accused director, Paul Hafliger, was read out which stated that in 1934, that is to say, one year after Hitler's rise to power, a treaty was signed between IG Farben and the nickel trust which permitted IG Farben to cover a good half of the German needs with only 50 per cent of the costs paid in foreign currency. In addition IG Farben AG was able to have the nickel trust stockpile a substantial supply of nickel in Germany at its expense.

Anyone who would care to plead naivete in defence of the nickel trust, however, will have the opposite proven to him by Director Hafliger himself. After the outbreak of the Second World War, on 19 October 1939, he wrote a memorandum which was placed before the Nuremberg court as Document No. NJ/9636 as evidence against the IG Farben criminals and in which Hafliger literally declares

"The nickel trust must endeavour not to permit its basic attitude to become public. Typical, for example, was its conduct when questions were asked both in Ottawa and in the British Parliament with the purpose of at least reducing the export to Germany. The trust understood how, even in that period of crisis, to divert the action by means of misleading statements behind the scenes and to have it come to nothing."

What had happened? After Hitler's annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland, and especially after the brutal rape of the rest of Czechoslovakia, the English-speaking peoples were highly disturbed, a fact which found its expression in the demand for economic and political security measures against the aggressor. Instead of acquiescing in these very natural demands, the nickel trust preferred to lie to the public about its continuing help for the nazi regime, and the help already planned for the future, and to continue to make deliveries to Hitler from its nickel mines in Petsamo, in far northern Europe (then Finland). Hafliger, whose praise of the trust speaks volumes, continues in his memorandum of October 1939:

"The attitude of the trust was completely loyal up to the last days before the outbreak of war. Among other things, no measures were attempted or steps undertaken to evade the great stockpiling risk which, after all, already amounted to some millions of Reichsmarks."

What was involved here actually needs no commentary. A world encircling trust, which has its headquarters in Canada and is a joint business undertaking of big Anglo-American capital, consciously, willingly helped German aggression. In order to set aside any doubts in the matter, let us give the floor to the IG Farben director once more. Drunk with the initial victories of the Wehrmacht in the Second World War, Hafliger demanded in his memorandum that the Finnish government be required to reserve a greater portion of its Petsamo production for Germany. What, however, would the nickel trust say to that, owning the concessions on the deposits, as it had, since 1934? That did not trouble the IG Farben director in the least:

"With a knowledge of the personalities and the already established basic attitude of the nickel trust, I consider it to be certain that such a decree would be appreciated by the trust; but for itself, too, it will see in the supply of Germany a desired protection against a possible Russian seizure... Obviously, on the side of the trust everything will be avoided which could have the effect of making further co-operation impossible with us after the end of the war."

It remains only to ask: who, then, the personalities were about whose "basic attitude" Hdfliger showed himself to be so well informed. The most important of them, in any case, was John F. Dulles, director and lawyer of the nickel trust and its chief adviser in all matters outside the American continent. He is:

o the same Dulles who elaborated the plans for a blockade of Soviet Russia when he was a member of the United States delegation at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference and who became treasurer and secretary of the "Russian Department of the War Trade Council", which was set up by US finance capital to bring the whole Russian economy under its control;

o the same Dulles who, as the richest lawyer of international monopoly capital, represented the American branches of IG Farben; the same Dulles who in 1939, as lawyer for the fascist murderer Francisco Franco, took action before American courts to have monies turned over to his client which belong to the Spanish Republicans;

o the same Dulles who, as lawyer for the German-British-American Schroeder Bank, defended their interests, while his brother Allen sat on their board of directors-the same Schroeder Bank which financed the Anglo-German Fellowship organization in Britain before the Second World War;

o the same Dulles who personally gave significant sums of money to the openly fascist, anti-Semitic organization, America First, which supported Hitler, and who arranged for its registration;

o the same Dulles who, when nazi Foreign Minister Ribbentrop sent an agent to America in 1940 in the person of Ludger Westrick, head of the German branch of the International Telephone and Telegraph Corp., served him as middleman and guarantor;

o the same Dulles whose brother, Allen W. Dulles, as a higher official of the State Department made the proposal, as far back as 1925, to ignore the German re-arming, and as chief of American espionage in Europe in the Second World War, engaged in secret negotiations with Prince Maximilian Egon von Hohenlohe in 1943 in Switzerland and proposed peace with Hitler on the basis of Hitler's annexations in South-East and Eastern Europe';

o the same J. F. Dulles who, as official adviser to Secretaries of State James F. Byrnes, George C. Marshall and Dean Acheson, participated in working out the anti-Soviet policy of the cold war;

o the same J. F. Dulles who, as Secretary of State of the USA, carried through the aggressive pro-fascist policy which he had always promoted, while his brother Allen at the same time advanced to become chief of the entire espionage and murder apparatus of the American secret service.

The cases of Dillon, Read and the nickel trust, whose directors supported German imperialism and pressed arms into its hands for a war against the Soviet Union before the Second World War, in order to heave West German industrial and armaments capital into power again, indeed, to let it become stronger and more aggressive than ever before, after the war, illustrate the policy of the ruling circles of America. How the president of the telephone trust, Sosthenes Behn, personally arrived at an agreement with Hitler for cooperation and for assistance in the arming of the Third Reich; how the heads of General Motors and the Du Pont trust in 1937 agreed on a common front against the Soviet Union with the diplomatic representatives of Hitler; how Standard Oil helped to make the nazi regime fit to wage war; how the chief of General Motors wanted to persuade President Roosevelt to recognize a peace a la Hitler in which nazi Germany would become master of all Europe in 1940 -- all of this has already been described in the relevant political literature.

A long list of such historical events demonstrates that American-British-French policy from the first to the second world wars was aimed at strengthening political and economic reaction in Germany, in order to turn Germany into the hangman of the Soviet Union and of Socialism. From 1919 to 1939, this western policy strove to push Germany into war against the East. Only against that background can the wide-ranging successes which Hitler achieved at the outset be understood.


1 According to a document of the Hitler fascist security service, which was found by the Red Army and quoted in Geschichtsfalscher, Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1952, p. 65. The text of the document was published in the Soviet journal New Times, No.27, July 1960. It also deals, incidentally, with the same Prince Hohenlohe, who in 1938 played a miserable role as Hitler's undercover agent to Lord Runciman, Chamberlain's emissary to Czechoslovakia, in preparing the Munich pact. Hohenlohe was then one of the richest owners of large tracts of land and forest in Czechoslovakia.

* Professor Albert Norden, Humboldt University in Berlin, was a member of the Political Bureu of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany. From 1913-1933 he was editor and deputy editor-in-chief of Die Rote Fahne, central organ of the CPG, was impriosned by the Nazis in 1924 and 1926 and again by Vichy France in 1940 where he successfully fled internment to the USA. He then wrote "The Thugs of Europe" (a documentary exposť of the profits in Nazism), co-founded the Council for a Democratic Germany, set up in 1944, published the bulletin Germany Today, and worked in a war plant. He passed away in 1982 at the age of 77.

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